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• In 1901, Landsteiner described the first 3 blood groups in the ABO system: Group A, Group B, and Group O. He also recognized the presence of antibody. ABO Blood Groups and Infectious Diseases. Hence, teaching the blood group serology is a relevant issue in medical education. The “MNS blood group antigens” were discovered in the 1920s by Karl Landsteiner (the same scientist who discovered the ABO system). single ABO genetic locus, and that A and B alleles are co-dominant against the recessive O allele. agglutination was observed in some combinations, as indicated with the We then merged with UK Transplant to create NHS Blood and Transplant. Rh Factor: The Rh factor, the second most important blood group system after the ABO blood group system, was first discovered in rhesis monkeys.The Rh factor is inherited independently from the ABO blood type. Noun 1. Epub 2013 Sep 4. Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943): originator of ABO blood classification. They were first described in 1911 by Von Dungern and Hirszfeld (Table 8.7): Significance of Blood Group in Blood Transfusion: Only blood of same group within the ABO system is normally transfused. The percentage of Rh positive … The ABO system is determined by the presence of A and B antigens on the surface of RBCs and are the result of Polymorphism in the ABO gene that was observed among different species and subspecies of mice, Appendix 23. Immunogenetics of the Histo-blood group ABO System, 09. GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro The Biosynthetic pathways of the A and B antigens, Appendix 08. blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ ABO blood groups (1901) There are more than 20 genetically-determined blood group systems known today, with the ABO system being the most important given its vital role in the safe use of blood transfusions. … Abo blood group system 1. forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, The four major blood groups are based on whether or not you have two specific antigens -- A and B. transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, They were discovered by Karl Landsteiner, who discovered the ABO blood group system in 1901, and Rh in 1940. donors, sugars, nucleotide-sugars, genetic engineering, differential transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The human ABO blood groups were discovered by Austrian-born American biologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901. In 1980 an ISBT committee was tasked to devise a genetically based numerical terminology for red cell antigens. Evolutionary Tree of ABO and Related Genes (2001), 39. The ABO blood group system was the first polymorphism discovered in humans. Note that H antigen is in a separate system, H Blood Group System 018, and is not part of the ABO system. In _____, Karl Landsteiner discovered the first blood group system (ABO) and recognized ____ different blood types. The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes. Test. The ABO blood group system was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, who found three different blood types A, B and O [4]. Landsteiner's discovery became the basis for the ABO blood grouping system (as the name of group C was later changed to type O). Discovery of the ABO system: In 1900 Karl Landsteiner reported a series of tests, which identified the ABO Blood Group System. und agglutinierenden Wirkungendes Blutserums und der Lymphe. What is the ABO Blood Group System? Group A has the A antigen and B antibody. The ABO blood group system was discovered one hundred years ago; the respective ABH antigens were found in the protein and lipid membrane components of various cells (most importantly, erythrocytes) and soluble blood group substances. From the results gleaned from his studies, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, THE ABO BLOOD GROUPS INHUMAN The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. Similarly, blood group B Appendix 07. ABH Antigens in Neurobiology. oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate Nomi, personality, Burnham Institute, Burnham Institute for Medical In ABO system, there are four main types of blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. The “MNS blood group antigens” were discovered in the 1920s by Karl Landsteiner (the same scientist who discovered the ABO system). The genetics of the ABO system was also elucidated. Glycosyltransferase Gene Expression in Human Tissues, 49. individuals express the B antigen on their RBCs and possess anti-A Anti-A or anti-B isoagglutinins (alloantibodies) are present only in the blood sera of individuals not possessing that specificity. The ABO Blood Group. 'O' group is the most frequent in ABO blood group system followed by 'A' blood group. von Decastello, Landsteiner's colleagues, and these four groups became Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (A3GALT2 Genes), 44. 2010 Feb;17(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tracli.2009.11.001. The immuno-dominant sugars of the A and B antigens are GalNAc (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine) and galactose, respectively. Transfection Results (A2 and A3 Alleles), 24. DR AMINA TARIQ ; BIOCHEMISTRY; 2. kinetics, sugar specificity, acceptor substrate specificity, acceptors, This discovery represents the basic knowledge for every blood transfusion. glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, ABO BLOOD GROUPABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMSYSTEM 2. The ABO blood group system wasdiscovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types in 1900,he was Three-Dimensional Structure of A Transferase, 37. It remains the MOST IMPORTANT blood group in transfusion practice. Transfection Results (B transferase Codon 268), 31. With his discovery of the ABO blood group system, Karl Landsteiner laid the foundation for modern day transfusion medicine. 46 year later (1946) the Blood Transfusion Service was formed. ABO Polymorphism & Cancer Susceptibility, Appendix 29. The second human blood-group system, the MN system, was discovered by Landsteiner and Levine (20).Our observation, independently made shortly afterwards in Finland, that neuraminidase from influenza viruses and Receptor Destroying Enzyme (R.D.E.) A student of Landsteiner's later identified an AB blood group that reacted with both A and B antibodies. If, in transfusion, type B blood is injected into persons with type A blood, the red cells in the injected blood will be destroyed by the antibodies in the … 1,3-GalNAc Transfection Results (A/B transferase), 22. Nucleotide-Sugar Specificity (A transferase Codons 266-268), 30. b. It was discovered in 1901 by Karl Landsteiner. The ABO blood group system was discovered one hundred years ago; the respective ABH antigens were found in the protein and lipid membrane components of various cells (most importantly, erythrocytes) and soluble blood group substances. In this model, Appendix 06. It was discovered in 1901 by Austrian haematologist and physician Karl Landsteiner who won a share of the 1930 Nobel Prize in for his work. This old knowledge is still useful, bringing new applications. Immuno-determinant structures of ABH(O) antigens. ABO blood group system majorly classifies the blood into four types that is A, B, AB and O. Agglutination reaction determines the ABO blood type which characterizes by the clump formation in the blood. blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, All You Need To Know about the ABO Blood Groups (Types), 02. Title: ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM 1 ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM. Rh Blood Group System. Variation in the ABO gene (chromosome 9q34.2) is the basis of the ABO blood group, thus the presence of an allele determines the blood group in an individual. Histo-blood Epub 2020 Apr 28. frequencies of A, B, and O vary among different races. However, RBC forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, Due to time for analysis, complexity, and expense of testing for possible reactions among all known antigens, the simpler ABO blood typing system remained the primary method to identify blood. • A fourth blood group AB was discovered by Landsteiner’s associates,Von Decastello and Sturli in 1902. Zentbl. Gravity. Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (2001), 40. With his discovery of the ABO blood group system, Karl Landsteiner laid the foundation for modern day transfusion medicine. In recent years, certain blood groups have been linked to an increased risk for certain diseases. ABO In human blood transfusions it is the most important of the 38 different blood type classification systems currently recognized. In the next year, a fourth group was discovered by Sturle and Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (2008), 42. Historical Perspective • ABO Blood Group System is the first human blood group system discovered. antibodies in their plasma. The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. The 'O' blood group is caused by a deletion of guanine-258 near the N-terminus of the protein which results in a frameshift and translation of an … Deduced Amino Acid Sequences of A/B/O Alleles, 10. After the discovery of the ABO Blood group system no . INTRODUCTION. The difference between each group is determined by the Parasitkde (Abt.) BO, AB, and OO) resulting in 4 phenotypes.The allele The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in the safe practice of blood transfusion. Part 1. before the prevalence of intermarriage with other races, American Two examples of cis-AB inheritance, Appendix 17. With his discovery of the ABO blood group system, Karl Landsteiner laid the foundation for modern day transfusion medicine. State Landsteiner's rules. Blood-group MN and virus receptor activities. 03. USA.gov. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Karl Landsteiner discovered the For example, Learn. Write. disparate second group, and Dr. Sturl. Yamamoto, Fumiichiro Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, Landsteiner, enzyme, As indicated by the negative symbol (-) in the table Famous among the blood types are the A, B, and O types, as well as the Rhesus blood type (negative and positive). During the blood transfusion, the two most important group systems examined are the ABO-system and the Rhesus system. In turn, it led to the defeat of particles in antibodies. We demonstrated in this study that blood group O subjects attracted more Aedes albopictus than other blood groups (B, AB, and A) but were only significantly more attractive than blood group A subjects in 64 human landing tests. Created by. the safe practice of blood transfusion. 27, 357-363. It is however only one of MANY systems involving the red blood cells. primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases. The ABO blood group system was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. This is a complex blood group system … People whose erythrocytes have A antigens on their erythrocyte membrane surfaces are designated blood type A, and those whose erythrocytes have B antigens are blood type B. The most important of these are the ABO blood group system and the Rhesus blood group system. ABO blood group in 1900 when he separated cellular and liquid Match. Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (GBGT1 Genes), 45. Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO blood group in 1900 when he separated cellular and liquid components from both his and his colleagues’ blood mixed in combination. cancer, diets, Peter D'Adamo, Blood type diets, neurobiology, Masahiko Ax, B3, alleles, weak subgroups, homo sapiens, pig AO genes, cis-AB, B(A), mouse cis-AB People who are +/+ or +/- possess the Rh(D) antigen and test as Rh positive. transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, Choose from 500 different sets of abo blood group flashcards on Quizlet. Evolutionary Tree of ABO and Related Genes (2008), 41. Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (GGTA1 Genes), 43. example, blood group A individuals express the A antigen on their RBCs Microbes Infect. Bernstein postulated that there are three alleles, A, B, and O, at a Mapping of the ABO gene using the radiation hybrid panel, Appendix 19. The specificity of the murine enzyme, Appendix 25. Landsteiner discov - ered the ABO blood group system by mixing the red cells and serum of each of his staff. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. There are more than 20 genetically-determined blood group systems known today, with the ABO system being the most important given its vital role in the safe use of blood transfusions. Landsteiner . ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in human blood transfusion. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. and possess anti-B antibodies in their plasma. ABO blood group system was discovered by Karl Landsteiner. The ABO blood group is most important among the 29 blood group ABO blood groups reflect the presence of three main carbohydrate antigens and distinct glycotransferase activities: A, B, and H. Individuals with the A, B, and AB alleles express glycosyltransferase activities that convert the H antigen to the A antigen or to the B antigen. Karl Landsteiner, ([ ˈkʰaɐ̯l ˈlantˌʃtaɪ̯nɐ ]) ForMemRS, (14 June 1868 – 26 June 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (ABO Genes), 46. This discovery represents the basic knowledge for every blood transfusion. However, the most important finding obtained from these experiments is The ABO blood group system was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1900. what is now known as the ABO group system (A, B, AB, and O groups). antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (A/B Allele vs. O Allele), 15. HHS [Karl Landsteiner, the man of blood groups]. genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B The genomic structure of the human ABO gene, Appendix 20. The ABO blood group system is a case where both alleles are transcribed. Doctors call this the ABO Blood Group System. Learn abo blood group with free interactive flashcards. The birth of transfusion immunology. ABO Polymorphism & Infectious Disease Susceptibility-2, Appendix 28. 1901 How many blood groups are recognised for horses? Antibodies and Antigens. Singapore Med J. NIH Genotypes for the Rh factor are +/+, +/-, and -/-. transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, Landsteiner realized that people could be grouped depending on the The ABO blood group system was discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner. This gene encodes proteins related to the first discovered blood group system, ABO. and Witt examined human sera for antibodies other than anti-A . The AB blood group was discovered by Von Decastellor and Sturli in 1902. In 1902, DesCasterllo and Sturli dis-covered the fourth type, AB (2). Karl Landsteiner, (born June 14, 1868, Vienna, Austrian Empire [Austria]—died June 26, 1943, New York, N.Y., U.S.), Austrian American immunologist and pathologist who received the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the major blood groups and the development of the ABO system of blood typing that has made blood transfusion a routine medical practice. Landsteiner's discovery became the basis for the ABO blood grouping system (as the name of group C was later changed to type O ). Transfection Results (A-B Transferase Chimeras --AA), 25. group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO Karl Landsteiner was able to identify 3 of the 4 ABO blood groups (A, B, O) in his laboratory staff (12 people) in 1901; the chance that 3 of 4 could be found in just 12 people was 1 in 250000. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. A student of Landsteiner's later identified an AB blood group that reacted with both A and B antibodies. evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, Learn more about Introduction to the ABO Blood Group System (online CE course) The History of the ABO System. gene, ABO genotype, ABO phenotype, DNA methylation, transcription, a subject of interest in population genetics and anthropology. belong to one group. The AB blood group was discovered by Von Decastellor and Sturli in 1902. ABO was the first human blood group system discovered and it plays a significant role in transfusion medicine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and solid organ transplantation.  |  Various terminologies have been used to describe the different blood group systems and their antigens and respective antibodies ever since the ABO blood group system was first discovered in 1900. The discovery of ABO system and findings of red cell agglutination in serum and recognition of blood groups laid the scientific basis for safe practice of blood transfusion. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the ABO and related genes, Appendix 21. With his discovery of the ABO blood group system, Karl Landsteiner laid the foundation for modern day transfusion medicine. In 1910 he won Nobel prize for medicine for this discovery. The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red abo blood system. Understanding the difference between antibodies and antigens is essential to understanding the ABO blood group system … Karl Landsteiner, ([ ˈkʰaɐ̯l ˈlantˌʃtaɪ̯nɐ ]) ForMemRS, (14 June 1868 – 26 June 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. Transfection Results (A transferase Codon 268), 29. Transfus Clin Biol. Alpha 1-3 Gal(NAc) Transferase Family, 38. State the differences in ABO antigens and antibodies in newborns. It remains the MOST IMPORTANT blood group in transfusion practice. Bakt. Blood Group O − no antigen, but antigen A as well as antibody B. Histo-blood The ABO blood group system was the first biochemical genetic polymorphism detected in humans. agglutination pattern of their RBCs. Lisa Sattenspiel, in Basics in Human Evolution, 2015. PLAY. Indians were all type O. In recent years, certain blood groups have been linked to an increased risk for certain diseases. This is a complex blood group system … glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B The ABO blood group system is widely credited to have been discovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who identified the O, A, and B blood types in 1900. Landsteiner originally described the O blood type as type "C", and in parts of Europe it is rendered as "0" … The ABO blood group system consists of four antigens (A, B, O and AB). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. alternative splicing, Golgi apparatus, transferase chimeras, GBGT1, This produces 6 genotypes (AA, AO, BB, components from the same individuals were mixed. ABO was the first blood group system discovered, by Landsteiner at the beginning of the 20th century (Landsteiner, 1900). Blood groups are antigens on the surface of the blood cell. occurring" antibodies against these antigens are found in the plasma of • It is the most important blood group system for transfusion practice. Hence, teaching the blood group serology is a relevant issue in medical education. The ABO Blood Group System. SJOL 2016 1 MAJOR BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM: ABO I. The ABO system is the most important blood group system in transfusion therapy and was the first blood group system to be discovered. rmrzvicky. Georg F. Springer, in Blood and Tissue Antigens, 1970. Transfection Results (A-B Transferase Chimeras --BB), 26. The ABO blood group systems were first discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. In recent years, certain blood groups have been linked to an increased risk for certain diseases. In order to explain the RBC Zur Kenntnis der antifermativen, lytischen Transfection Results (A-B Transferase Chimeras --AB), 27. should be used for transfusion. Sign in|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites. Most of us find out what blood group we have either out of curiosity, routine medical check-ups, or through blood … In 1980 an ISBT committee was tasked to devise a genetically based numerical terminology for red cell antigens. and B antigens on their RBCs and possess neither anti-A nor anti-B The ABO blood group system was discovered by Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types (A, B and O) in 1900 from serological differences in blood called theLand-steiner Law (1). Consideration of the ABO system is the most imperative while transfusion of human blood. The ABO blood group system consists of 4 types of blood group – A, B, AB, and O and is mainly based on the antigens and antibodies on red blood cells and in the plasma. 3. This discovery represents the basic knowledge for every blood transfusion. The ABO blood group was discovered in 1900 by Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner. Although the ABO blood group name consists of three letters, ABO blood typing designates the presence or absence of just two antigens, designated as A and B; both are glycoproteins. belong to a positive symbol (+). Partial Amino Acid Sequence Comparison (GLT6D1 Genes), 48. Genetic basis of ABO blood grouping, Appendix 05. Blood transfusion; additional historical aspects. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! c) When our blood comes in contact with blood of a different type, our bodies can develop long-term immunity to the alien blood type. A variety of methods for the ABO genotyping, Appendix 26. tive antibodies ever since the ABO blood group system was first discovered in 1900. ABO Blood Group System. The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in the safe practice of blood transfusion. It was discovered in 1901 by Austrian haematologist and physician Karl Landsteiner who won a share of the 1930 Nobel Prize in for his work.  |  Discovery of ABO Blood Group System. A3, Ax, and B3 weak subgroups, Appendix 15. ABO blood group system synonyms, ABO blood group system pronunciation, ABO blood group system translation, English dictionary definition of ABO blood group system. polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, ABH Antigen Expression & Cancer, Appendix 33. Similarly, Dr. Plee. NLM and Personalized Medicine of Cancer, Institut de Medicina Predictiva i immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, Personalitzada del Càncer,  AABB, ISBT, dbRBC - Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database. components from both his and his colleagues’ blood mixed in polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, A, B, AB, O, A2, A3, Transfus Med. susceptibility, alterations in glycosylation in cancer, pancreatic landsteiners rule. The ABO blood group system is widely credited to have been discovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types in 1900; he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for his work. In 1900, a German scientist, Karl Landsteiner, discovered that blood groups differ from one individual to another. The genetics of the ABO system was also elucidated. blood groups are hereditary, and their mode of inheritance was We collected saliva from the subjects and tested it for agglutination in … 2020 Oct;22(9):385-388. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2020.04.008. Therefore, the ABO blood group system is one of the popular technique to classify human blood. The ABO blood group system consists of 4 types of blood group – A, B, AB, and O and is mainly based on the antigens and antibodies on red blood cells and in the plasma. This serves as the basis for grouping humans into phenotypes designated A, B, AB, and O. He mixed the serum and cells of all the researchers in his lab and found four different patterns of agglutination. This led to the discovery of sub-groups of A and AB called A 2 and A 2 B. In recent years, certain blood groups have been linked to an increased risk for certain diseases. oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate Flashcards. For example, Dr. St. and Mr. Land. 2013 Dec;23(6):375-81. doi: 10.1111/tme.12075. This is an ongoing process and new information regarding the antigens and apparent new group. Glycosyltransferase Gene Expression Analyzed by Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm, Appendix 01.Discovery of the ABO blood group system, Appendix 03. He took blood samples from five associates and himself, allowed them to clot, and then separated the serum from the cells transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO 1 shows the major blood group systems. He found out that when different blood types are mixed, plasma of certain blood types formed clusters owing to the absence of molecules on RBCs. glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, new blood group systems were found for 25 years. Frequencies of the alleles in this genetic system vary markedly across space, and evolutionary explanations have been proposed to explain this variation since the system’s discovery by Karl … • In 1901, Landsteiner described the first 3 blood groups in the ABO system: Group A, Group B, and Group O. The first human blood group, that is, the ABO system discovered by Landsteiner, 1 is the most commonly used blood system although many blood systems have been identified so far. and Mr. Zar. primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc These include well-known systems such as ABO and the Rh system (formerly known as ‘Rhesus’). explained by Bernstein’s one gene-three allelic model. antigens (A and B) are found on the surface of RBCs, and the "naturally In this review, we report about the history of the discovery of the blood groups by Landsteiner, the link of different blood groups to certain diseases and our experiences regarding teaching to medical students. The ABO blood group system is the first described of the human blood groups based upon carbohydrate alloantigens present on red cell membranes. This old know … blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ antigens on their RBCs but possess both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. 2013 May;54(5):243-4. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2013099. Landsteiner's work laid the foundation for our understanding of … STUDY. [Karl Landsteiner discovers the blood groups]. The ABO blood group system was discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner. that only ABO-matched blood that does not cause RBC agglutination blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO By 1937, scientists had discovered greater than 100 antigens and twenty-three different blood groups based on the presence or absence of those antigens. susceptibility to infectious diseases, differential cancer b) Antibodies to alien antigens in the ABO group may be present in one's body prior to the first contact with blood of a different ABO type. karl landsteiner. genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B By mixing the separated sera with suspensions of red cells obtained from the blood of different individuals, four patterns of agglutination were obtained. combination. blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, Advances in research technologies in the past few years have made it possible to identify three new blood group systems: Langereis and Junior, identified in 2012, and Vel, discovered a year later in 2013. glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B

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