The wild version of chickpeas ( Cicer reticulatum) is only found in parts of what is today southeastern Turkey and adjacent Syria, and it is likely that it was first domesticated there, about 11,000 years ago. International Agricultural Research Centres who worked together to make this site possible: It ranks second in area and third in production among the pulses worldwide. Chickpea ranks third in the worldâs production of seed legumes, after soybean (Glycine max L.) and pea (Pisum sativum). This chapter focuses on the history and origin of chickpea, with emphasis on domestication, evolution of crop types, centres of diversity and crop production. The name Cicer is of Latin origin, derived from the Greek word 'kikus' meaning force or strength. Name of crop [e.g. In: Singh RJ, Jauhar PP, editors. Longman Group Limited. In: Fuccillo D, Sears L, Stapleton P, editors. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Chickpea can be consumed cooked, baked, roasted, popped (like popcorn), stewed, or ground into flour (gram flour). Dicotyledons. Chickpea is considered the third most important pulse in the world, being widely grown in many subtropical and warm-temperate regions. 1996. Hopf M. 1969. Proof of chickpea cultivation dates back as far as the early Bronze Age in Jericho (Hopf, 1969). It does not contain any specific major anti-nutritional or toxic factors often present in other legumes. The name Cicer is of Latin origin, derived from the Greek word âkikusâ meaning force or strength (Singh and Diwakar, 1995). Ethiopia is one of the secondary centers of origin for chickpea where in 2016, over one million farmers produced the crop on 240,000 hectares of land with a total production of 450,000 Mt (CSA, 2017). closely related to chickpea and those in GP2 and GP3 are distantly related to chickpea (Kupicha, 1977). Rich., and 34 wild perennial Cicer species (Ahmad et al, 2005). Reference number [an auto generated reference number e.g. Chickpea Breeding & Management. The plant also plays an important role in farming systems, due to its efficient symbiotic nitrogen fixation properties. This is a preview of subscription content, Â©Â Springer Science+Business Media New YorkÂ 2014, Kerem, Z., S. Lev-Yadun, A. Gopher, P. Weinberg & S. Abbo, Lippi, M.M., C. Bellini, M. Morisecci & T. Gonelli, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2, Reference Module Humanities and Social Sciences, Ceramics: The Ibero-American Shipping Container, Chan: A Tropical Rain Forest Site in Belize, Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington 1987), Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (1990), Charter for the Protection and Management of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (1996), Childe, Vere Gordon (Political and Social Archaeology), Children in Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology, Children in the Central and Western Mediterranean, Archaeology of. pp 355-599. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is characterised by a different adaptation profile from the other crops of West Asian origin such as pea, barley, and wheat. Three genepools have been proposed for grouping Cicer species: the primary genepool (GP1) includes the cultivated species C. arietinum and two wild annual species C. echinospermum P.H. Choumane W, Baum M. 2000. pp. The genus Cicer comprises one cultivated species, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and 42 wild species. The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. Cambridge University Press. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is among the founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent.One of two major forms of chickpea, the soâcalled kabuli type, has white flowers and lightâcolored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. Description of chickpea. It is cultivated on nearly every continent, but major traditional production is in India, Pakistan, Turkey, Myanmar, and Ethiopia. It is cultivated primarily for its seeds rich in proteins. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria. M3 - Conference paper. Chickpea is a diploid and predominantly self-pollinated legume, but cross-pollination by insects sometimes occurs (Purseglove, 1968). Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) is the world's second most cultivated food legume species, grown in over 14.5 million hectare in 2017, from the Mediterranean basin and West Asia to the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa, Australia, and North and South America. Chickpea, annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely grown for its nutritious seeds. Chickpea [Cicer arietinum (L.)] belongs to genus Cicer, tribe Cicereae, family Fabaceae, and subfamily Papilionaceae. Contact person for Chickpea: Hari D Upadhyaya, ICRISAT, India. Saxena MC, Singh KB, editors. Chinese Center of origin Mediterranean Center â¢ Includes the borders of the Mediterranean Sea. It is grown and consumed in large quantities from South East Asia to India and in the Middle East and Mediterranean countries. Chickpea. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) originated in the fertile crescent between 10,000 and 12,000 y ago (37, 38), domesticated from the wild species Cicer reticulatum. Diversity of chickpea seeds (photo: ICARDA). and C. pinnatifidum Jaub. This book covers all aspects of chickpea breeding and management, including: origin, taxonomy and ecology; geographic distribution; nutrition; genetics and cytogenetics; breeding methods and achievements; wild relatives; and genetic enrichment using molecular biology and biotechnology. Furthermore, various abiotic and biotic Ahmad F, Gaur PM, Croser J. Redden RJ, Berger JD. http://www.croptrust.org/documents/web/CicerStrategy_FINAL_2Dec08.pdf. chickpea (GIMS)]. pp. Chickpea is a cool season food legume crop grown on >10 million ha in 45 countries of the world. Available from: Natural outcrossing in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Most production and consumption of chickpea takes place in developing countries. Primary center of origin- soybean, radish, orange, pear, millets, oats and Chinese cabbage. AU - van der Maesen, L.J.G. The pea plant is an annual sticky herb till 1.64 feet tall.Stems slender, pubescent and branchy. Chickpea is a species from genus Cicer (Singh and Diwakar, 1995) and is an old world pulse and the second most important legume crop consumed worldwide (Ladizinsky, 1975; Iqbal et al., 2010). The use of RAPD markers for characterization of annual species of the genus Cicer. Prospects for chickpea cropping are discussed. CAB International, UK. Chickpea seeds are high in protein.It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes, and 7500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East. In: Yadav SS, Redden R, Chen W, Sharma B, editors. The following information must be recorded for each accession: Status [inside supply/external supply (GIMS)]. ex A. Chickpea is grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. 1997. Leaves compound, provided with 3 to 8 pairs of leaflets oval, toothed, with a terminal leaflet.. structure analyses of multilocus genotypes (MLGs) without regard to geographic origin of samples. Y1 - 1987. Chickpea spread with human migration toward the West and South via the Silk Route (Singh et al, 1997). Africa Rice Center | Bioversity International | CIAT | CIMMYT | CIP | ICARDA | ICRISAT | IFPRI | IITA | ILRI | IRRI |, Genetic resources and genebank management, Pre-breeding for Effective Use of Plant Genetic Resources, Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution, In vitro conservation and cryopreservation, Rice seeds from arrival at IRRI to departure, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources ‘K.Malkov’, http://www.croptrust.org/documents/web/CicerStrategy_FINAL_2Dec08.pdf. Global Crop Diversity Trust. External reviewer: Shyam Yadav (Momase Regional Research Centre, Papua New Guinea). 220.127.116.11. Consigneeâs name and designation, including the first name, last name (GIMS). CABI, Wallingford, UK. Chickpea (En), Pois chiche (Fr); Cicer arietinum L. Production and distribution. ISBN 0851985718. Thirty-four of the chickpea wild relatives are perennials and the other nine (including the cultivated species) are annuals. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Chickpeas are an important food plant in India, Africa, and Central and South America. Washington leads the nation in the production of large kabuli chickpeas and small desi chicâ¦ There are two main varieties of chickpea: Desi â The smaller, darker, rougher-surfaced variety of chickpea, grown mostly in India, the Middle East, Mexico, and eastern Africa. Data from these centres were reviewed and the best and adaptable practices were identified and compiled here. The high protein content makes it a perfect addition to cereals, as cereals... Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. The tertiary genepool (GP3), the most distantly related group, includes three annual wild Cicer species, C. yamashitae Kitam., C. chorassanicum (Bunge) Popov and C. cuneatum Hochst. Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of chickpea (Cicer L.) [online]. De Candolle (1882) considers the region between Greece and Himalayas as the probable origin, while Vavilov (1926) suggested Mediterranean and Southwest Asia as primary and Ethiopia to be secondary centres of origin. There are different views on the origins of chickpea. b). Davis and C. reticulatum Ladiz., the putative wild progenitor (Ladizinsky and Adler, 1976). This legume is important as a protein source and cash crop and makes important component of the low input agricultural system of the country. A member of the pea and bean family (Leguminosae/Fabaceae), Cicer arietinum is one of 43 species in the genus Cicer. Average annual chickpea area is >16,000 ha in each of the 23 most important chickpea-growing countries. secondary center of origin- maize, rajma, cowpea, turnip and sesame. Chickpeas are grown primarily in Montana (35 percent of total production), Washington (32 percent), Idaho (19 percent), and North Dakota (7 percent). â¢ 84 plants are listed for Cereals and Legumes: durum wheat, Mediterranean oats, sand oats, pea. The Chickpea. 1968. De Candolle (1883) traced the origin of chickpea to an area south of the Caucasus and northern Persia. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo) 2:809–820. Watch a great documentary on the importance of genetic diversity, land races and crop wild relatives, to the future of agriculture in the face of climate change and other challenges. Information was edited into a uniform format and uploaded onto this website, complemented with relevant photos and revised and validated by the crop experts. The origin of the kabuli form has been enigmatic. Chronica Botanica, New York 13-1/ 6:26-38, 75-78 151 (1949-50). Chickpeas were part of the culture that first developed farming on our planet, called the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. Some authors also group the perennial wild Cicer species C. anatolicum Alef., with the primary genepool species (Choumane and Baum, 2000). Not logged in Chickpea has a relatively minor importance in the world market but it is extremely important for local trade in numerous tropical and subtropical regions. Chickpea spread with human migration toward the West and South via the Silk Route (Singh et al, 1997). First of all, the chickpea, also known as the garbanzo bean, is a legume (a simple dry fruit) and it is closely related to beans, lentils, peanuts, alfalfa, soy, and peas. The secondary genepool (GP2), the next closest group, consists of three annual wild Cicer species, C. judaicum Boiss. Kabuli type is grown in temperate regions while the desi type chickpea is grown in the semi-arid tropics (Muehlbauer and Singh, 1987; Malhotra et al., 1987). Other names for this crop of Neolithic southwest Asian origin include garbanzo bean in the Americas, hamaz in Arabic countries, nohud or lablabi in Turkey, shimbra in Ethiopia, and bengal gram or chana in India (Redden & Berger 2007: 9). London. 2008. 246-250. Chickpea is a cool-season food legume grown mainly by small farmers in many parts of the world. Ext- 20/2008 (GIMS)]. The success of chickpea on a global scale is due to its high seed-protein content (nearly 20 %) and, as a result, its potential as a valuable meat substitute. Genetic relationships among the annual species of Cicer L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. London: Duckworth. The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. Other chapters from this book. Vavilov NI. Four centres of diversity were identified in the Mediterranean, Central Asia, the Near East and India, as well as a secondary centre of origin in Ethiopia (Vavilov, 1951). He noticed that, like other grain legumes, Singh KB, Pundir RPS, Robertson LD, van Rheene HA, Singh U, Kelley TJ, Rao PP, Johansen C, Saxena NP. ICARDA. Flowers white, pink or purple, solitary in leaf axils. It is also being used increasingly as a substitute for animal protein. Keywords: ascochyta blight, chickpea, 409 pages. Chickpea probably originated from South East Turkey. Vavilov (1926, 1949-50) designated two primary centres of origin (now centres of diversity), south-west Asia and the Mediterranean, and a secondary one, Ethiopia. 5.4 Marketing channels and distribution of costs and margins 22 5.5 Chickpea collection and distribution points 29 5.6 Quality characteristics of traded chickpea 30 5.7 Seasonal movements in prices 34 5.8 Determinants of chickpea prices 35 5.9 Availability of business services in chickpea â¦ It is the only cultivated pulse from the tribe Cicereae (Family Fabaceae). The Kabuli types, predominantly grown in the Mediterranean region, have large, beige-coloured and owl-head shaped seeds with a smoother coat. The majority of the centres were following standard practices in managing their collections. Cicer arietinum L. In: Tropical Crops. One of two major forms of chickpea, the so-called kabuli type, has white ï¬owers and light-colored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. However, a narrow genetic base of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has hindered the progress in realizing high yield gains in breeding programs. With topics covered including origin and taxonomy, ecology, distribution and genetics, this book combines the many and varied research issues impacting on production and utilization of the chickpea crop on its journey from paddock to plate. Four centres of diversity were identified in the Mediterranean, Central Asia, the Near East and India, as well as a secondary centre of origin in Ethiopia (Vavilov, 1951). Chickpea seeds contain an average of 23% proteins and the crop meets up to 80% of the nitrogen requirements from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Based on seed size and shape, two main kinds of chickpea are recognized: The Desi types closer to the putative progenitor (C. reticulatum) found predominantly in India and Ethiopia, which have small, angular, coloured seeds and a rough coat. pp 1-13. Compilation of information on current practices for genebank management of chickpea was lead by ICRISAT, Patancheru, India in collaboration with Bioversity International. PY - 1987. 2005. Chickpea is the third most important pulse in the world (after beans and peas). Chickpea probably originated from South East Turkey. Genetic Resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement - Grain Legumes Vol. It is one of the dry edible legumes with best nutritional composition. Chickpea is an important grain legume of the semi arid tropics and warm temperate zones, and forms one of the major components of human diet. pp 187-217. 1.