asteraceae family characteristics

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Most of them are xerophytes, hydrophytes and semi-aquatic. Whole plant at time of flowering. ASTERALES. Alternate simple or compound leaves, often with wide central vein. With more than 1,620 genera and 23,600 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees distributed throughout the world, Asteraceae is one of the largest plant families. Rising above all the cellular details that link Asteraceae plants in the same family is a primary defining characteristic – their flowers. The seeds are exalbuminous. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Both homogamous and heterogamous heads are present in the most basal Asteraceae subfamilies, the Barnadesioideae and Mutisieae (Gillies, Cubas, Coen, & Abbott, 2002). (1998, p. 1639) was performed to investigate the binding model of calein C with α-glycosidase. ASTERALES. Involucre morphology. It departs, when you consider the strongly zygomorphic strap-shaped ligulate/ray flowers, from ALL FIVE traits of primitive flowers. D.Chaenactis gabriuscula. ASTERALES. 12.8), both dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans [14]. S.G. Deans, E.J.M. For family names, the modern tendency in taxonomy is to use the name of a familiar plant in a certain family and to add the suffix -aceae to the name. This family has about 25,000 different plant species, including many different varieties of daisy and aster, as well as the sunflower, yarrow, goldenrod, and dahlia.Most plants in the family are herbs or shrubs, although a few species of Asteraceae are trees or climbing vines. Examples of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans. Escandon-Rivera et al. F.Carduus pycnocepha-lus. The Asteraceae family, also referred to as the Compositae family, is one of the largest families of flowering plants. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the seeds of Hernandia ovigera (Hernandiaceae) resulted in the identification of (2R,3R)-5′-methoxyguayarol (Fig. The gerbera ray flowers are female while those in sunflower are neutral in sex. H–J., Utah State University - Intermountain Herbarium - Asteraceae. The corolla is sympetalous with 5 [rarely 4] lobes (reduced to 3 marginal teeth in some), of three structural types (also called “flower types”): (1) bilabiate, corolla zygomorphic with a short tube having upper and lower lips; (2) disk, corolla acti-nomorphic with short to elongate tube bearing 5 [4] teethlike or elongate lobes; or (3) ray or ligulate, corolla zygomorphic with generally short tube having elongate, flat, extension bearing 3–5 apical teeth. D. Disk flower, showing inferior ovary and corolla. The initiation and development of individual flowers in the Asteraceae heads is often considered to be uniformly acropetal, i.e. A total of 32 of the 41 Caribbean endemic genera are single-island endemics, with Cuba holding 17, Hispaniola 11, and four endemic to Jamaica; of the 41 endemic genera, a total of 26 are unispecific. The capitulum forms a pseudanthium, a structure that resembles a single large flower as shown for gerbera and sunflower in Figure 10.1. is not only used as culinary spice but also as traditional medicine to treat cancers, heart, and gastric troubles (Tene et al., 2004; Kuete et al., 2011c). 1. An Austrian study has re-confirmed the importance of testing with not only a mixture of Compositae and a mixture of sesquiterpene lactones, but also with additional plant extracts when there is continuing clinical suspicion of allergy to one of the Compositae [3]. Claßen-Bockhoff & Bull-Hereñu (2013) present an ontogeny-based concept describing the various inflorescence types. C. Close-up of head (capitulum), characteristic of the Asteraceae. Radiate heads, having inner disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers. Omissions? In gerbera the disc flowers are gradually changing from bilateral symmetry towards radial symmetry the more central their position in the capitulum is, while in sunflower all the disc flowers are fully radially symmetrical (tubular). Molecular studies from a developmental perspective may help to clarify this view. It includes shrubs, perennials and annuals, but not trees or aquatics. The Caribbean holds almost one-third of the world's insular endemic Asteraceae genera (41 of the 136 genera, approximately 30%). The majority of Asteraceae species are herbaceous, yet an important component of the family is constituted by shrubs or even trees occurring primarily in the tropical regions of North and South America, Africa and Madagascar and on isolated islands in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Characteristics Of The Asteraceae Members of the Asteraceae are most readily characterized by their unique floral structure. Our morphological analyses on gerbera (also a member of the subfamily Mutisieae) are in line with Harris’ results on M. coccinea in that the delay in development of the marginal flowers in comparison to the disc flowers is less pronounced than in heterogamous species of the more derived subfamilies, such as in sunflower (Figure 10.2). The leaves may be radical, petiolat… In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016. Pozner, Zanotti, and Johnson (2012) presented a morphological characterisation of young developing inflorescences of several Calyceraceae species (a sister family of Asteraceae; Lundberg & Bremer, 2003) and uncovered that the basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a very condensed thyrsoid that combines both racemose and cymose branching patterns. Modification of the outer floral whorl into pappus bristles that take part in seed dispersal is also a highly common character within the family. Economic importance includes some food plants (e.g., Cynara scolymus, artichoke, and Helianthus annuus, sunflower), a number of ornamental cul-tivars, and various species used locally or industrially; the prickly fruits of Arctium lappa (burdock) are purported to have been the model for invention of velcro. K.Malacothrix californica. J.Psathyrotes ramosissima. These form more than ten per cent of the total number of species of flowering plants. These plants have composite 'flowers' which are actually flower-like inflorescences. Arnica montana and great burdock (Arctium lappa) can also cause skin irritation owing to attachment of flower heads by hooked bracts. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. I.Bahiopsis laciniata. An important advance has also been made in the creation of sweetened pediatric dispersible tablets for children, as the adult formulation of Coartem is bitter. Figure 12.8. 12.8) was identified from the methanol extract of the rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis (Liliaceae) [13]. Disk flower morphology. Taproots are modified into tubers. 4. In contrast, in species with heterogamous capitula, the pattern of primordia initiation differs between the flower types. They are generally easy to distinguish from other plants, mainly because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. Artichokes (Cynara), lettuce (Lactuca), endive (Cichorium), and salsify (Tragopogon) are commonly eaten as vegetables, and the edible seeds of safflower (Carthamus), and sunflower (Helianthus) are used in the production of cooking oils. (See the colour plate.). These compounds can cause allergic skin reactions. However, often in literature and also in this chapter, the term ‘ray flower’ is used to refer to marginal flowers independently of their morphology. Chamomile may inhibit cytochrome P-450.97 Therefore, patients who are taking other drugs metabolized by the enzyme system should used caution when ingesting chamomile products. Some species have flowers with only disk or only ray florets. Figure 10.1. FIGURE 8.131. C. Capillary bristles antrorsely barbellate, Isocoma menziesii. Of 346 patients tested, 15 (4.3%) reacted to the mixture of Compositae, compared with eight of 1076 patients (0.7%) who gave positive results with the lactone mixture, indicating the importance of the addition of Compositae allergens to the lactone mixture. The inner petals of the bilabiate corolla have been considered relicts from a less condensed inflorescence structure and the ray corolla shape as an adaptation to the condensed capitulum structure (Gillies et al., 2002). This family includes 900 genera and about 13,000 species. FIGURE 8.132. Harris’ study included one heterogamous species (Mutisia coccinea) from the basal subfamily Mutisieae, but unfortunately no species from the basalmost subfamily Barnadesioideae. It includes the plants that are normally cultivated for ornamental flowers as well as for oil value. E.Cirsium vulgare, a thistle. Asterales / æ s t ə ˈ r eɪ l iː z / is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae (or Compositae) known for composite flowers made of florets, and ten families related to the Asteraceae.. Tupichilignan A (Fig. H. Pappus of flat awns, Uropappus lindleyi. The floral primordia develop in the capitulum so that the newest primordium approaches 137.5° (the golden angle) from the preceding primordium, leading to left and right turning spiral rows (parastichies) of floral primordia (Figure 10.2). Several studies have shown that the presence of the showy marginal flowers in heterogamous heads is adaptive and increases the attractiveness of the inflorescence to pollinators and affects the rate of outcrossing, thereby increasing genetic diversity and fitness (Andersson, 2008; Marshall & Abbott, 1984; Stuessy, Spooner, & Evans, 1986; Sun & Ganders, 1990). Cultural Characteristics Characteristics members of this family, commonly known as daisies, are usually herbs or shrubs and may be annuals or perennials the flower heads are very complicated, with the flowers on a common base surrounded by one or more rows of bracts the bracts are in a variety of colours, often shades of yellow, orange and pinks, others are white Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to the Asteraceae (Compositae) can arise from sesquiterpene lactones. To detect contact allergy to sesquiterpene lactones, a mixture of lactones (alantolactone, costunolide, and dehydrocostus lactone) is used. Dwivedi, in Discovery and Development of Antidiabetic Agents from Natural Products, 2017. Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) has been used in Mexican folk medicine since long time. Head, side view, showing involucre. Fruits (achenes), Sonchus olera-ceus. This preliminary treatment with NAD creates a diabetic syndrome similar to type 2 DM by stimulating partial protection against the cytotoxic action of STZ by scavenging free radicals and only small damage to pancreatic β-cell mass. D. Decussate phyllaries in Jaumea carnosa. Economic Uses: -The importance of the Asteraceae is The capitula show spiral phyllotaxis with left and right turning rows of floral primordia. This species is the source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, known as qinghaosu. The flowers of members of this family are aggregated within a composite grouping known as an inflorescence, which in this family is known as a head. Asteraceae; Sunflower family – General characters , floral formula , floral diagram , economic importance and common species Syed Muhmmad Muzammil Gilani. Attracts pollinators. The uniqueness of the Aster or Sunflower family is that what first seems to be a single large flower is actually a composite of many smaller flowers. A,B. Propagation type:Seeds and fruits Distribution: The members of this family are distributed throughout the world. The gynoecium is syncarpous, with an inferior ovary, 2 carpels, and 1 locule. M.Encelia californica. proceeding from the margins towards the apex. The fruit is an achene (or “cypsela,” an achene derived from an inferior ovary), typically a multiple fruit of achenes, an elongate beak forming between fruit and pappus in some taxa. The family Asteraceae (Compositae) is regarded as the most advanced and highly evolved and is considered to occupy the highest position in the plant kingdom. The methanol extract of E. giganteus roots also exhibited significant activity with MIC values of 32 and 16 μg/mL, respectively against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and H37Rv (Tekwu et al., 2012). C.Chaenactis artemisiifolia. See Bremer (1994, 1996) and Panero and Funk (2002, 2008) for more detailed information on relationships in the Asteraceae. I.Layia platyglossa. B. Close-up of basal leaves, showing silver, UV-refl ectant, sericeous trichome layer. The stamens are 5 [4], whorled, alternipetalous, usually syngenesious, the anthers fused into a tube through which the style grows. J.D.D. Strap-shaped ray florets extend out like petals from the centre and are sometimes reflexed (bent back). L–N. The aqueous ethanolic extract of the fruits of A. lappa yielded two novel compounds (Fig. However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult (see "damned yellow composite" for example). The aster family (Asteraceae) is one of the largest angiosperm families, with more than 1,620 genera and 23,600 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees distributed throughout the world. L.Bahiopsis laciniata. Poisoning in animals causes disorders of the digestive and nervous systems. The leaves of Asteraceae are simple or occasionally compound, and their arrangement along the stem may be opposite, alternate, or, less commonly, whorled; not infrequently they are opposite toward the base of the stem and alternate above. Asteraceae or Compositae is an exceedingly large and widespread family of flowering plants with more than 23,600 currently accepted species, spread across 1,620 genera and 13 subfamilies. (2012) postulated that the nature of the acyl residue at C-8 has an impact on the enzymatic activity that is why the best activity was found for calein C in comparison with calein B. A–C.Gazania sp., head morphology. Members of the Asteraceae plant family are found throughout the world; because of the characteristics of the members of this plant family, other alternative names include the sunflower, daisy, or aster plant family. Placentation is basal; ovules are anatropous, unitegmic, 1 per ovary. Other characters that are diagnostic to the family include anthers united in a tube and inferior ovary position (Harris, 1995). Positive patch test reactions were 2 + for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), false ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), wild feverfew (Parthenium hysterophorus), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), and 1 + for Dahlia species and English ivy (Hedera helix) [2]. About half of the species are native to the Old World and half are native to the New World. One of the major challenges in the creation, distribution, and utilization of ACT is the low yield of the compound from Artemesia annua plants. THE THREE CAPITULUM TYPES (radiate, discoid, ligulate) The Asteraceae has recently been classified into at least 10 subfamilies (Panero and Funk, 2002). Asteraceae is among the largest families of plants with more than 23,000 species that occupy all the continents except Antarctica (Jeffrey, 2007). Another interesting view on Asteraceae inflorescence structure is based on inflorescence morphologies of the families that are basal to Asteraceae, including Menyanthaceae, Goodeniaceae and Calycereceae that together form a phylogenetically well-supported clade (the MGCA-clade) within Asterales (Lundberg & Bremer, 2003; Tank & Donoghue, 2010). Adrienne Juarascio, ... Nalaka S. Gooneratne, in Therapy in Sleep Medicine, 2012, Chamomile, or Matricaria recutita, is one of the most widely used types of CAM therapy for promoting sleep and treating insomnia.102 The active ingredients in chamomile are chamazulene, apigenin, and bisabolol.103 The sedative effects of chamomile may be due to a benzodiazepine-like compound in the flower head. K. Compound receptacle bearing numerous bristles, Carduus pycnocephalus. In the analysis of enzyme inhibition properties of calein C using Lineweaver–Burk and Dixon plots, it was found that this SL shows a mixed type of inhibition against Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase (Escandon-Rivera et al., 2012, p. 968). K–M. The Chicory subfamily includes a variety of plants with dandelion-like flowers. (Figures 8.130–8.134). Chamomile is part of the Compositae family; thus, patients hypersensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family, which includes ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and other herbs, should be alert for allergy symptoms.97 When ingested in the form of a highly concentrated tea, it has also been shown to induce vomiting. Furthermore, they postulate that differences between the peripheral and central parts of the IM may be the evolutionary basis for the consequent development of distinct flower types in Asteraceae. Gerbera has intermediate trans flowers (TF) similar to ray flowers but just smaller in size. Compositae dermatitis occurred in a 9-year-old boy with a strong personal and family history of atopy. Another group of poisonous substances in the Compositae comprises terpenoid compounds, especially sesquiterpene lactones (present in Lactua virosa, Artemisia douglasii, Achillea millefolium, Matricaria chamomilla, and Cichorium endivia). Based on morphological data, they conclude that FUM resembles more floral meristems (FMs) than IMs. Argyroxiphium sandwicense, silversword. Suvi K. Broholm, ... Paula Elomaa, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2014. In both species, there is a developmental delay in marginal ray flowers compared to the adjacent trans or disc flowers, respectively. Other well-known garden plants and wildflowers include Boltonia, Brachycome, burdock (Arctium), butterbur (Petasites), Calendula, cat’s ear (Hypochoeris), cudweed (Filago and Gnaphalium), Gerbera, hawksbeard (Crepis), Inula, Matricaria, and Piqueria. Asteraceae, also called Compositae, the aster, daisy, or composite family of the flowering-plant order Asterales. In homogamous heads all the flowers are similar, whereas in heterogamous heads, flowers in the margins of the head are morphologically and functionally distinct from the centrally located flowers (Figure 10.1). Description Composite flowers: flower head made up of many tiny ray and disk flowers. The Caribbean daisies, Asteraceae, are an overlooked and extraordinary flagship family for the Caribbean. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Asteraceae. These are herbs, shrubs or trees. The Asteraceae (asters, daisy or sunflower family) or Compositae (composites) are a very large and diverse group of flowering plants (angiosperms) with some 1620 genera and over 23 000 species. The ancestral Asteraceae corolla (the petal whorl) shape is considered to be tubular (actinomorphic), from which the zygomorphic bilabiate (three outer and two inner petals) and ray (strap-shaped fused ligule with maximum three apical teeth) corolla have evolved (Stuessy & Urtubey, 2006). The perianth is biseriate or uniseriate with hypan-thium absent. K. Bilabiate flower morphology, Trixis californica. Dissected flower, showing syngenesious androecium, with central style. ASTERALES. Flower heads in Gerbera hybrida (top) and Helianthus annuus (below) are compressed structures comprised of distinct flower types. was reported from RI by Kartesz (1999), based on George (1992); however, George (1999) stated this species had questionable naturalization in RI. Some genera include noxious weeds, such as dandelion (Taraxacum), ragweed (Ambrosia), and thistle (Carduus, Cirsium, and others). To strengthen this hypothesis, it is essential to study the ontogeny of floral initiation and development in heterogamous species of Barnadesioideae. Anthers are basifixed, with apical extensions and sometimes basal lobes, longitudinal and introrse in dehiscence. The flowers are epigynous, bisexual or unisexual, subtended in some taxa by bracts, known as chaff, or bristles (as in the thistles). By using additional short ether extracts, the authors found two of five patients who had otherwise been overlooked. The initiation and subsequent development of the marginal ray flower primordia is delayed in comparison to that of the disc flower primordia and proceeds basipetally towards the margins of the inflorescence meristem (IM) (Bello, Álvarez, Torices, & Fuertes-Aguilar, 2013; Harris, 1991; 1995; Thomas, Rudall, Ellis, Savolainen, & Glover, 2009). A. Radiate head, face view. 203-211] Diversity: Worldwide: 1,100 genera; 19,000 species U.S.: >200 genera The large scale production of lower cost ACT combination therapies is being executed as a result of the fruits of biospecting, traditional knowledge and state of the art scientific advances in synthetic biology. Family: Asteraceae; Compositae; Common name: sunflower family [Zomlefer, pp. ASTERACEAE/COMPOSITAE:SUNFLOWER or ASTER FAMILY Lettuce, artichoke, calendula, zinnia, marigold, sunflower. D–G.Encelia californica. Paul Alan Cox, Steven King, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013. Asteraceae. 3. E. Pappus of plumose capillary bristles, Cirsium mohavense. The Asteraceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees, the inflorescence a head (capitulum) subtended by an involucre of phyllaries, flowers either bilabiate, disk, or ray/ligulate (heads of many taxa a mixture of central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers), with the calyx, termed a pappus, modified as scales, awns, or capillary or plumose bristles (or absent), the androecium syngenesious, the ovary inferior with a single, basal ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes. It is also possible that chamomile might interact with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs as well as any drug with sedative properties such as benzodiazepine.

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