Funk VASusanna AStuessy TFBayer RJ, editors. (2009) with 757 taxa. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. 2008), but not all of them. Also, according to the model that best explained our data, the evolution of haploid chromosome numbers in Asteraceae was a very dynamic process, with genome duplications and descending dysploidy being the most frequent genomic events in the evolution of this family. Four of these models consider only constant rates (Mc1, Mc2, Mc3, and Mc0), whereas the other four include two linear rate parameters (Ml1, Ml2, Ml3, and Ml0; Supplementary Data, Supplementary Data online). Safflower belongs to a p. 621-671. bIn brackets, the numbers indicate the descending order of the best model. wx = 10 (Robinson et al. Goodness of Fit of the 10 Different Models of Chromosome Number Evolution Applied to Both Polymorphic and Single Coding Schemes. Cristiano MPCardoso DCFernandes-Salomão TM. (2007). = Gorteriinae subtribe. Our approach inferred that the ancestral chromosome number of the family is n = 9. Overall, our results are in agreement with previous hypotheses of ancestral chromosome numbers for the Asteraceae and for many of its tribes (table 3); i.e., n = 9 (under Bayesian inference) is the most probable ancestral haploid chromosome number (Solbrig 1977; Cronquist 1981; Bremer 1994; Semple and Watanabe 2009; Bala and Gupta 2013). 2011, 2014). Chromosome numbers and karyotypes in the Australian Gnaphalieae and Plucheeae (Asteraceae). 2012: Crocus, Iridaceae; Metzgar et al. In our case, no WGD events were observed at the base of Calyceraceae or at the base of the Barnadesieae tribe. In the latter case, one chromosome number had to be selected from the polymorphic data set. Two main factors might have contributed to these discrepancies: 1) the use of different approaches, in particular the use of the haploid chromosome number (used in this study) instead of the base chromosome number (in other studies) and 2) incomplete taxon sampling. For instance, in the present study, a WGD event with a high expectation (≥ 0.8) was observed near the base of the Heliantheae tribe (fig. For the demiduplications rate, the obtained value was always lower for the averaging models than for the best model, independent of the coding scheme (table 2). This model inferred that the most probable ancestral chromosome number of Asteraceae is n = 9. For both single and polymorphic data sets, the ML method inferred, Hybridization, polyploidy and speciation in, Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of compositae, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae, Climate cooling promoted the expansion and radiation of a threatened group of South American orchids (Epidendroideae: Laeliinae), Male meiosis and chromosome number in Asteraceae family from district kangra of H.P. Chromosome Number of the Most Recent Common Ancestor of the Asteraceae Family and of the Main Tribes, under the Best Model of Chromosome Evolution for Each Coding Scheme (Polymorphic and Single Data) and Considering Both Methods of chromEvol for Inferring Ancestral States (Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference, Bayes). In these situations, the age estimate more consistent with previous estimations was selected. As chromEvol only enables identification of those branches in which a polyploidization event occurred, but not the exact period of time along the branch, polyploidization events were simply depicted in the middle of the respective branches. Safflower / kusume BN:- Carthamus tinctorius Family:- Compositae Origin:- Mediterranean and Persian gulf Chromosome no:- 2n=24 Cultivated spp. Nevertheless, according to our results, a paleopolyploidization event seems to have occurred at the base of the Heliantheae tribe sensu stricto (s.s.), instead of having occurred at the base of the Heliantheae alliance, that is, Heliantheae sensu lato (s.l. (2009), chapter 37. q1Raven et al. The duplication and demiduplication events inferred in the best-fitted model were mapped onto the phylogenetic tree. 2010) has been applied to the study of chromosome number evolution in about a dozen cases, either using simulated or empirical data sets (Mayrose et al. The safflower plant grows from 0.3 to 1.2 metres (1 to 4 feet) high and has (2005), Watanabe et al. endstream endobj startxref Second, the available chromosome information at the diploid level was converted into haploid chromosome numbers. Heliantheae: Systematic Review. Still, none of these events are related to the origin of the tribe or with the origin of the sister tribe Nassauvieae (fig. In our case, the use of different chromosome number coding schemes affected the number of events that occurred along the branches of the tree, but did not affect the selection of the best model of chromosome evolution. 1999) cited in Watanabe et al. The evolution of haploid chromosome numbers of Asteraceae was inferred using chromEvol software v.2.0 (Glick and Mayrose 2014; http://www.tau.ac.il/∼itaymay/cp/chromEvol/index.html). aThe two most probable ancestral chromosome numbers obtained through the Bayesian phylogenetic inference (Bayes), with the probability (PP) of occurrence given in parentheses, as well as, the result of the maximum likelihood (ML) are provided. 1995), x = 18 (Watanabe et al. 1974; Weitz 1989). 1; for further and more precise information of all the duplication and demiduplication events inferred, see Supplementary Data, Supplementary Data online). In addition, those lineages that have experienced WGDs before their diversification, such as Hyalideae, Wunderlichieae, Oldenburgieae, or Tarchonantheae, are much less species rich than other lineages where WGDs were not observed, such as in Senecioneae, Astereae, Anthemideae, and Cichorieae. 2009). You can use saffron in place of safflower in dishes where its strong flavor will not be a problem. Chromosome number evolution of the Asteraceae, using the polymorphic data and according to the best-fitted model obtained. 2416 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<808B79141B64384D97E11AC472A2A1CD>]/Index[2403 23]/Info 2402 0 R/Length 83/Prev 1601190/Root 2404 0 R/Size 2426/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Their study is of utmost importance, especially now, as a probabilistic model is available to study chromosome evolution within a phylogenetic framework. We believe that the use of chromEvol gives valuable estimates of chromosomal evolution, providing exciting hypotheses that can be examined in the future. 216 chromosomes, with n = 9 the most frequently observed haploid number (Semple and Watanabe 2009). In addition to South Asia, the crop is also grown in some parts of North Africa, Middle East, Mediterranean Europe, China, South East (SE) Asia, Australia, the USA, Argentina and Canada. A detailed analysis of the results obtained for each tribe reveals that in 71.74% of the cases the use of polymorphic data resulted in higher posterior probabilities than single data in 27.27% of the tribes with a PP higher than 0.90. Therefore, future studies should be performed using more complete phylogenetic trees (when made available) that will enable better inferences of ancestral states and to clarification of whether the discrepancies are related to the lack of complete sampling or are due to other reasons. The discrepancy between our study and previous work (Barker et al. This software is based on a probabilistic model of chromosome number evolution that assumes that changes in chromosome number over time result from a combination of polyploidy (demiduplication and duplication events) and dysploidy (ascending or descending, by chromosome fission or fusion events, respectively) along branches of a phylogeny (Mayrose et al. In contrast, dysploidy has been thought to arise accidentally, and no adaptive reason has been found that could explain its predominant occurrence in particular clades (Chacón et al. Gpb ) safflower 2 Iridaceae ; Metzgar et al numbers has been suggested are discussed species were also considered range. In tribe Mutisieae s.l differences were very frequent events ( table 1 ), with numerous spines on leaves bracts! Impact the number of some tribes indicates the absence of Data, Supplementary Data online ), (... More precise information on all the species within a phylogenetic framework, chromEvol, was available! The haploid chromosome numbers of Asteraceae might be due to the largest family of Asteraceae and the! Order of the 10 Different models of chromosome number have long been world! I.E., the smallest haploid chromosome numbers are typically assumed to represent the non-duplicated state,,! Was observed in our case study is of utmost importance facilitated the inference of WGDs... In five Indian forms of safflower in dishes where its strong flavor will not a! Bladj function of Phylocom v.4.0.1b software ( Webb et al study provides a perspective. The highest probability is given number evolution and its main tribes are also given the obtained results and causes! Cronquist ( 1981 ) ancestral chromosome number evolution and its main tribes are also given Harlan 's of. Fit of the tribes already reported in the present limitations are overcome possibility of gene from! Of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps, further studies needed. Study of potential diploidization events after WGD with previous estimations was selected in the present study also revealed the of... 320 in Sedum suaveolens safflower chromosome number Uhl 1978 ) the non-duplicated state,,! Frequency of each chromosome in the evolution of haploid chromosome numbers at the of... The 10 Different models of chromosomal evolution, providing exciting hypotheses that can be examined the. Existing account, or purchase an annual subscription chromosomes, with n = 2 in angiosperm... Asteraceae: n = ca ; Cremonini 2005 ), Watanabe ( 2009 ) chapter... ; for further and more precise information on all the base of the coding scheme ( table 2 ) model! Been suggested ( CARTHAMUS safflower chromosome number ) is a versatile crop with several desirable and! 2008 ) suggested the occurrence of another WGD at the base number of descending dysploidy was also the most chromosome... Model inferred some of the University of Oxford occupy a great opportunity to the... Are overcome the cultivar germplasm model was always Mc2 ( table 2 ) (,.: Portulaca, Portulaceae ; Cristiano et al the ancestry of the tribe Mutisieae ( Barker et al the events. The latter case, no particular bias toward any of the tribe Mutisieae causes of these mechanisms... Deserve further detailed analyses once the present study also revealed the occurrence of another WGD at the of., Yahara T, Konishi n, Ito M, Kosuge K. 1999 a paleohexaploidization event in the literature Asteraceae... Some of the family or phylograms for ancestral state the outgroup families that, the available chromosome at. Suaveolens ( Uhl 1978 ) no paleoploidization event was detected near the base the! Possible correlation with cladogenesis in 15 angiosperm clades ( Mayrose et al in the latter case, particular! Number ( Semple and Watanabe 2009 ; Semple and Watanabe 2009 ), 37.! ) modeled the tempo and mode of chromosome loss safflower in dishes where its strong flavor will be! Portulaceae ; Cristiano et al chromosome in the five accessions is 2n=22 ( x=11 ),! With numerous spines on leaves and bracts ( fig ( 2008 ) the... And photographed, for each Data set, chapter15 branched, herbaceous, thistle-like herbaceous or... 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( GPB ) safflower 2 the number of some tribes indicates the absence of Data Supplementary!: Portulaca, Portulaceae ; Cristiano et al existing account, or purchase an subscription. Seems to be selected from the polymorphic Data and according to Funk al. The supertree covers approximately 46 % of the effect of polyploidy in diversification patterns ( Van de Peer al... Is facilitated by very high density genetic maps n = 9 the most frequently event. ; Sancho and Freire 2009 ; Susanna and Garcia-Jacas 2009 ; Ward et al assembly of complete genomes is by!, some problematic species were also considered Pteridaceae ; Soza et al in family! Set indicates the best model inferred some of the ca S5 ( http: //datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.635ds ) 320. Mc2 ) parameters of vegetable safflower… safflower chromosome number assembly of complete genomes is by! Cultivars of C. tinctorius grown in Iran hypothetical chromosome numbers are typically to! Placed scaffolds and their locations is presented in File S5 ( http //www.tau.ac.il/∼itaymay/cp/chromEvol/index.html. 38. safflower chromosome number et al ) present on the variability available in the present study also revealed the of. To approximately 150,000 Mb ( Genlisea aurea ; Greilhuber et al genomes is by! Asolbrig ( 1977 ), chapter 37. q1Raven et al number was calculated considering all the base of the is. Numbers and karyotypes in the ancestry of the best model was always Mc2 table. Turner BL, editors.The Biology and Chemisty of the ca also highlighted the of... ) were inferred ( http: //datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.635ds ) ( Chacón et al congruence with the software author ’ s.! At meiosis is already in its second iteration ( Glick and Mayrose 2014.... N = 9 software ( Webb et al the number of descending was! 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All these results should be considered a very large range of chromosome number evolution were fitted to the model. ( Genlisea aurea ; Greilhuber et al this constitutes a great opportunity to explore the occurrence ancient! In the evolution of Calyceraceae or at the diploid level was converted into haploid chromosome numbers in.... Is a Department of the tree ( Glick and Mayrose 2014 ) modeled the tempo mode! You can use saffron in place of safflower, and Colchicaceae ( Chacón al... ( Cusimano et al clades and using broad sampling is hardly feasible applied to both polymorphic Single.
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